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What are the two default metrics used by EIGRP for route selection? (Choose two.)
EIGRP adds together weighted values of different network link characteristics in order to calculate a metric for evaluating path selection.
These characteristics include:
Delay (measured in 10s of microseconds)
Bandwidth (measured in kilobytes per second)
Reliability (in numbers ranging from 1 to 255; 255 being the most reliable) Load (in numbers ranging from 1 to 255; 255 being saturated) Various constants (K 1 through K 5) are able to be set by a user to produce varying routing behaviors.
However by default, only delay and bandwidth are used in the weighted formula to produce a single 32bit metric:
Note: Default K values are: K1 = K3 = 1 and K2 = K4 = K5 = 0 When K5 is equal to 0 then [K5/( K4 + reliability)] is defined to be 1
Use of the default constants effectively reduces the formula above to:
Which statement describes the process ID that is used to run OSPF on a router?
A. It is globally significant and is used to represent the AS number.
B. It is locally significant and is used to identify an instance of the OSPF database.
C. It is globally significant and is used to identify OSPF stub areas.
D. It is locally significant and must be the same throughout an area.
The Process ID for OSPF on a router is only locally significant and you can use the same number on each router, or each router can have a different number -it just doesn’t matter. The numbers you can use are from 1 to 65,535. Don’t get this confused with area numbers, which can be from 0 to 4.2 billion.
Refer to the exhibit. If the router R1 returns the given output and has not had its router ID set manually, what address will EIGRP use as its router ID?
The router ID is selected according to the following rules: manual configuration highest up/up loopback highest up/up physical interface
What are three values that must be the same within a sequence of packets for Netflow to consider them a network flow? (Choose three.)
A. source IP address
B. source MAC address
C. egress interface
D. ingress interface
E. destination IP address
F. IP next-hop
Each packet that is forwarded within a router or switch is examined for a set of IP packet attributes. These attributes are the IP packet identity or fingerprint of the packet and determine if the packet is unique or similar to other packets.
Traditionally, an IP Flow is based on a set of 5 and up to 7 IP packet attributes. IP Packet attributes used by NetFlow:
IP source address
IP destination address
Layer 3 protocol type
Class of Service
Router or switch interface
All packets with the same source/destination IP address, source/destination ports, protocol interface and class of service are grouped into a flow and then packets and bytes are tallied. This methodology of fingerprinting or determining a flow is scalable because a large amount of network information is condensed into a database of NetFlow information called the NetFlow cache.
Refer to the exhibit. Which three EIGRP routes will be present in the router R4’s routing table? (Choose three.)
EIGRP performs an auto-summarization each time it crosses a border between two different major networks, so when R2 advertises the routes to R4 it will advertise only the summarized routes of 10.0.0.0/8 and 172.16.0.0/16, along with the 192.168.1.0/24 route coming from R3.
Which statement describes an EIGRP feasible successor route?
A. Aprimary route, added to the routing table
B. Abackup route, added to the routing table
C. Aprimary route, added to the topology table
D. Abackup route, added to the topology table
Two terms that appear often in the EIGRP world are “successor” and “feasible successor”. A successor is the route with the best metric to reach a destination. That route is stored in the routing table. A feasible successor is a backup path to reach that same destination that can be used immediately if the successor route fails. These backup routes are stored in the topology table.
Refer to the exhibit. The company uses EIGRP as the routing protocol.
What path will packets take from a host on 192.168.10.192/26 network to a host on the LAN attached to router R1?
R3# show ip route
Gateway of last resort is not set
192 168.20.0/24 is variably subnetted, 6 subnets, 2 masks
D 192.168.20.64/26 [90/2195456] via 192.168.20.9, 00:03:31, Serial0/0
D 192.168.20.0/30 [90/2681856] via 192.168.20.9, 00:03:31, Serial0/0
C 192.168.20.4/30 is directly connected, Serial0/1
C 192.168.20.8/30 is directly connected, Serial0/0
C 192.168.20.192/26 is directly connected, FastEthernet0/0
D 192.168.20.128/26 [90/2195456] via 192.168.20.5,00:03:31, Serial0/1
A. The path of the packets will be R3 to R2 to R1
B. The path of the packets will be R3 to R1 to R2
C. The path of the packets will be both R3 to R2 to R1 and R3 to R1
D. The path of the packets will be R3 to R1
Looking at the output display above, the LAN attached to router R1 belongs to 192.168.20.64/26 subnet and learned this network via 192.168.20.9 which will be an IP address in 192.168.20.8/30 sub-network. This means that packets destined for 192.168.20.64 will be routed from R3 to R1.
A router receives information about network 192.168.10.0/24 from multiple sources.
What will the router consider the most reliable information about the path to that network?
A. an OSPF update for network 192.168.0.0/16
B. a static route to network 192.168.10.0/24
C. a static route to network 192.168.10.0/24 with a local serial interface configured as the next hop
D. a RIP update for network 192.168.10.0/24
E. a directly connected interface with an address of 192.168.10.254/24
F. a default route with a next hop address of 192.168.10.1
What Is Administrative Distance?
Select the Best Path
Administrative distance is the first criterion that a router uses to determine which routing protocol to use if two protocols provide route information for the same destination. Administrative distance is a measure of the trustworthiness of the source of the routing information. Administrative distance has only local significance, and is not advertised in routing updates.
Note: The smaller the administrative distance value, the more reliable the protocol. For example, if a router receives a route to a certain network from both Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) (default administrative distance – 110) and Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (IGRP) (defaultadministrative distance – 100), the router chooses IGRP because IGRP is more reliable. This means the router adds the IGRP version of the route to the routing table.
Users have been complaining that their Frame Relay connection to the corporate site is very slow. The network administrator suspects that the link is overloaded.
Based on the partial output of the Router # show frame relay pvc command shown in the graphic, which output value indicates to the local router that traffic sent to the corporate site is experiencing congestion?
B. last time PVC status changed 00:25:40
C. in BECN packets 192
D. in FECN packets 147
E. in DF packets 0
First we should grasp the concept of BECN & FECN through an example:
Suppose Router A wants to send data to Router B through a Frame Relay network. If the network is congested, Switch 1 (a DCE device) will set the FECN bit value of that frame to 1, indicating that frame experienced congestion in the path from source to destination.
This frame is forwarded to Switch 2 and to Router B (with the FECN bit = 1). Switch 1 knows that the network is congesting so it also sends frames back to Router A with BECN bit set to 1 to inform that path through the network is congested.
In general, BECN is used on frames traveling away from the congested area to warn source devices that congestion has occurred on that path while FECN is used to alert receiving devices if the frame experiences congestion.
BECN also informs the transmitting devices to slow down the traffic a bit until the network returns to normal state.
The question asks “which output value indicates to the local router that traffic sent to the corporate site is experiencing congestion” which means it asks about the returned parameter which indicates congestion ->BECN.
What is the purpose of LCP?
A. to perform authentication
B. to negotiate control options
C. to encapsulate multiple protocols
D. to specify asynchronous versus synchronous
In order to be sufficiently versatile to be portable to a wide variety of environments, PPP provides a Link Control Protocol (LCP). The LCP is used to automatically agree upon the encapsulation format options, handle varying limits on sizes of packets, detect a looped-back link and other common misconfiguration errors, and terminate the link. Other optional facilities provided are authentication of the identity of its peer on the link, and determination when a link is functioning properly and when it is failing.
Refer to the exhibit. Host A pings interface S0/0 on router 3, what is the TTL value for that ping?
From the CCNA ICND2 Exam book: “Routers decrement the TTL by 1 every time they forward a packet; if a router decrements the TTL to 0, it throws away the packet. This prevents packets from rotating forever.” I want to make it clear that before the router forwards a packet, the TTL is still remain the same. For example in the topology above, pings to S0/1 and S0/0 of Router 2 have the same TTL.
The picture below shows TTL values for each interface of each router and for HostB.
Notice that Host A initializes ICMP packet with a TTL of 255:
Refer to the exhibit. What is the meaning of the term dynamic as displayed in the output of the show frame-relay map command shown?
A. The Serial0/0 interface is passing traffic.
B. The DLCI 100 was dynamically allocated by the router
C. The Serial0/0 interface acquired the IP address of 172.16.3.1 from a DHCP server
D. The DLCI 100 will be dynamically changed as required to adapt to changes in the Frame Relay cloud
E. The mapping between DLCI 100 and the end station IP address 172.16.3.1 was learned through Inverse ARP
The term dynamic indicates that the DLCI number and the remote router IP address 172.16.3.1 are learned via the Inverse ARP process.
Inverse ARP is a technique by which dynamic mappings are constructed in a network, allowing a device such as a router to locate the logical network address and associate it with a permanent virtual circuit (PVC).
The command frame-relay map ip 10.121.16.8 102 broadcast was entered on the router.
Which of the following statements is true concerning this command?
A. This command should be executed from the global configuration mode.
B. The IP address 10.121.16.8 is the local router port used to forward data.
C. 102 is the remote DLCI that will receive the information.
D. This command is required for all Frame Relay configurations.
E. The broadcast option allows packets, such as RIP updates, to be forwarded across the PVC.
The command frame-relay map ip 10.121.16.8 102 broadcast means to map the remote IP 10.121.16.8 to the local DLCI 102. When the “broadcast” keyword is included, it turns Frame Relay network as a broadcast network, which can forward broadcasts.
Refer to the exhibit. A packet with a source IP address of 192.168.2.4 and a destination IP address of 10.1.1.4 arrives at the AcmeB router.
What action does the router take?
A. forwards the received packet out the Serial0/0 interface
B. forwards a packet containing an EIGRP advertisement out the Serial0/1 interface
C. forwards a packet containing an ICMP message out the FastEthemet0/0 interface
D. forwards a packet containing an ARP request out the FastEthemet0/1 interface
Looking at the output above, there is no IP route for 10.1.1.4 address on AcmeB routing table.
If the router can no find a specific path in its routing table to a particular route,( In this case no path is found so AcmeB) the router will inform the source host with an ICMP message that the destination is unreachable and this will be through the same interface it has received the packet (interface Fa0/0 network 192.168.3.0/28 from the exhibit).
It has become necessary to configure an existing serial interface to accept a second Frame Relay virtual circuit. Which of the following are required to solve this? (Choose three)
A. configure static frame relay map entries for each subinterface network.
B. remove the ip address from the physical interface
C. create the virtual interfaces with the interface command
D. configure each subinterface with its own IP address
E. disable split horizon to prevent routing loops between the subinterface networks
F. encapsulate the physical interface with multipoint PPP
Step to configure Frame Relay subinterfaces on a physical interface:
1. Remove any network layer address (IP) assigned to the physical interface. If the physical interface has an address, frames are not received by the local subinterfaces.
2. Configure Frame Relay encapsulation on the physical interface using the encapsulation frame-relay command.
3. For each of the defined PVCs, create a logical subinterface. Specify the port number, followed by a period (.) and the subinterface number. To make troubleshooting easier, it is suggested that the subinterface number matches the DLCI number.
4. Configure an IP address for the interface and set the bandwidth.
5. Configure the local DLCI on the subinterface using the frame-relay interface-dlci command.
R1(config)#interface serial 0/0/0
R1(config-if)#no ip address
R1(config-subif)#interface serial 0/0/0.102 point-to-point
R1(config-subif)#ip address 192.168.1.245 255.255.255.252
R1(config-subif)#frame-relay interface-dlci 102
R1#copy running-config startup-config
Which feature does PPP use to encapsulate multiple protocols?
Network Core Protocol (NCP) is the component that encapsulates and configures multiple network layer protocols.
Refer to the exhibit. From R1, a network administrator is able to ping the serial interface of R2 but, unable to ping any of the subnets attached to RouterB.
Based on the partial outputs in the exhibit, what could be the problem?
A. EIGRP does not support VLSM.
B. The EIGRP network statements are incorrectly configured.
C. The IP addressing on the serial interface of RouterA is incorrect.
D. The routing protocol has summarized on the classful boundary.
E. EIGRP has been configured with an invalid autonomous system number.
If you look carefully at the R2 ip route, you will discover that the R2 does not learn any network from R1; this is because the routing protocol used here (EIGRP) performs auto summary when advertising routes to peers across a network. So in this case the address 172.17.0.0/26 is a summarized address. If the router was configured with no auto summary command, R2 LAN addresses would have been advertised and reached.
A network administrator is troubleshooting an EIGRP problem on a router and needs to confirm the IP addresses of the devices with which the router has established adjacency.
The retransmit interval and the queue counts for the adjacent routers also need to be checked.
What command will display the required information?
A. Router# show ip eigrp adjacency
B. Router# show ip eigrp topology
C. Router#show ip eigrp interfaces
D. Router#show ip eigrp neighbors
Below is an example of the show ip eigrp neighbors command. The retransmit interval (Smooth Round Trip Timer SRTT) and the queue counts (Q count, which shows the number of queued EIGRP packets) for the adjacent routers are listed:
R1#show ip eigrp neighbors
IP-EIGRP neighbors for process 1
H Address Interface Hold Uptime SRTT RTO Q Seq (sec) (ms) Cnt Num
0 10.10.10.2 Fa0/0 12 00:00:39 1282 5000 0 3
When a router undergoes the exchange protocol within OSPF, in what order does it pass through each state?
A. exstart state > loading state > exchange state > full state
B. exstart state > exchange state > loading state > full state
C. exstart state > full state > loading state > exchange state
D. loading state > exchange state > full state > exstart state
In the Frame Relay network, which IP addresses would be assigned to the interfaces with point-to-point PVCs?
A. DLCI 16 192.168.10.1/24
DLCI 17 192.168.10.1/24
DLCI 99 192.168.10.2/24
DLCI 28 192.168.10.3/24
B. DLCI 16 192.168.10.1 /24
DLCI 17 192.168.11.1/24
DLCI 99 192.168.12.1/24
DLCI 28 192.168.13.1/24
C. DLCI 16 192.168.10.1/24
DLCI 17 192.168.11.1/24
DLCI 99 192.168.10.2/24
DLCI 28 192.168.11.2/24
D. DLCI 16 192.168.10.1/24
DLCI 17 192.168.10.2/24
DLCI 99 192.168.10.3/24
DLCI 28 192.168.10.4/24
DLCI 16 and DLCI 19 need to act like a point-to-point link and will therefore need to be on the same network as will DLCI 17 and DLCI 28. With this information we can see that option “B” is the only option that has the corresponding DLCI’s on the same network based on the ip addresses and subnetmask.
Option “D” is incorrect because, this would put the same network on both interfaces of the R2 router. Option “A” is similar.
Refer to the exhibit. Why has this switch not been elected the root bridge for VLAN1?
A. It has more than one interface that is connected to the root network segment.
B. It is running RSTP while the elected root bridge is running 802.1d spanning tree.
C. It has a higher MAC address than the elected root bridge.
D. It has a higher bridge ID than the elected root bridge.
When a switch receives a BPDU, it first compares priority, the lower number wins. If a tie, compare MAC, the smaller one wins. Here Switch has 32769 priority which is greater than 20481 so switch will not elect for root bridge. It says the bridge priority for Switch is 32769, and the root priority is 20481. Which means that some other switch has the lower priority and won the election for VLAN 1.
Refer to the exhibit. At the end of an RSTP election process, which access layer switch port will assume the discarding role?
A. Switch3, port fa0/1
B. Switch3, port fa0/12
C. Switch4, port fa0/11
D. Switch4, port fa0/2
E. Switch3, port Gi0/1
F. Switch3, port Gi0/2
In this question, we only care about the Access Layer switches (Switch3 & 4). Switch 3 has a lower bridge ID than Switch 4 (because the MAC of Switch3 is smaller than thatof Switch4) so both ports of Switch3 will be in forwarding state. The alternative port will surely belong to Switch4.
Switch4 will need to block one of its ports to avoid a bridging loop between the two switches.
But how does Switch4 select its blocked port?
Well, the answer is based on the BPDUs it receives from Switch3.
A BPDU is superior than another if it has:
1. A lower Root Bridge ID
2. A lower path cost to the Root
3. A lower Sending Bridge ID
4. A lower Sending Port ID
These four parameters are examined in order. In this specific case, all the BPDUs sent by Switch3 have the same Root Bridge ID, the same path cost to the Root and the same Sending Bridge ID. The only parameter left to select the best one is the Sending Port ID (Port ID = port priority + port index). In this case the port priorities are equal because they use the default value, so Switch4 will compare port index values, which are unique to each port on the switch, and because Fa0/12 is inferior to Fa0/1, Switch4 will select the port connected with Fa0/1 (of Switch3) as its root port and block the other port -> Port fa0/11 of Switch4 will be blocked (discarding role)
Refer to the exhibit. Which switch provides the spanning-tree designated port role for the network segment that services the printers?
First, the question asks what switch services the printers, so it can be Switch 3 or Switch 4
which is connected directly to the Printers.
Designated port is a port that is in the forwarding state. All ports of the root bridge are designated ports.
Switch 3 and Switch 4 has same priority so it will see on lowest MAC address and here switch 3 has lowest MAC address. So switch 3 segment will play a Designated port role. By comparing the MAC address of Switch 3 and Switch 4 we found that the MAC of Switch 3 is smaller. Therefore the interface connected to the Printers of Switch 3 will become designated interface and the interface of Switch 4 will be blocked.
Refer to the exhibit. Given the output shown from this Cisco Catalyst 2950, what is the reasons that interface FastEthernet 0/10 is not the root port for VLAN 2?
A. This switch has more than one interface connected to the root network segment in VLAN 2.
B. This switch is running RSTP while the elected designated switch is running 802.1d Spanning
C. This switch interface has a higher path cost to the root bridge than another in the topology.
D. This switch has a lower bridge ID for VLAN 2 than the elected designated switch.
These four parameters are examined in order to make root bridge , root port , designated port. Other switch has lowest Sending Bridge ID or Sending Port ID so vlan 2 is not the root port.
1. A lower Root Bridge ID
2. A lower path cost to the Root
3. A lower Sending Bridge ID
4. A lower Sending Port ID
Which two of these statements regarding RSTP are correct? (Choose two.)
A. RSTP cannot operate with PVST+.
B. RSTP defines new port roles.
C. RSTP defines no new port states.
D. RSTP is a proprietary implementation of IEEE 802.1D STP.
E. RSTP is compatible with the original IEEE 802.1D STP.
The role is now a variable assigned to a given port. The root port and designated port roles remain, while the blocking port role is split into the backup and alternate port roles. The Spanning Tree Algorithm (STA) determines the role of a port based on Bridge Protocol Data Units (BPDUs). In order to simplify matters, the thing to remember about a BPDU is there is always a method to compare any two of them and decide whether one is more useful than the other. This is based on the value stored in the BPDU and occasionally on the port on which they are received. This considered, the information in this section explains practical approaches to port roles.
Compatibility with 802.1D
RSTP is able to interoperate with legacy STP protocols. However, it is important to note that the inherent fast convergence benefits of 802.1w are lost when it interacts with legacy bridges.
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